Layers of Testing

The purpose of testing is to verify expected functionality and find potential defects. Testing enhances the confidence in delivering qualified products and also brings the possibility of agile iteration. It is safe to say that testing determines the product development progress.

As you may already know, in networking, there are 7 layers of OSI model and 4 layers of TCP model. In development, we also have different patterns such as MTV, MVC, MVP, and MVVM. These technologies have become more mature featuring high cohesion, low coupling, and division of responsibilities, modules, and layers. …

In my last article, I talked about how to use KubeKey to create a Kubernetes and KubeSphere cluster together with NFS storage. In fact, KubeSphere provides you with great flexibility as you can use KubeKey to install NFS storage when you create a cluster while it can also be deployed separately on an existing cluster.

KubeSphere features a highly interactive dashboard where virtually all the operations can be performed on it. In this article, I am going to demonstrate show to configure an NFS storage class on your existing KubeSphere cluster and create a PVC using the storage class.

Before You Begin

  • You…

KubeEye is an open-source diagnostic tool for identifying various Kubernetes cluster issues automatically, such as misconfigurations, unhealthy components and node failures. It empowers cluster operators to manage and troubleshoot clusters in a timely and graceful manner. Developed in Go on the basis of Polaris and Node Problem Detector, KubeEye is equipped with a series of built-in rules for exception detection. Besides pre-defined rules, KubeEye also supports customized rules.

Why Open Source

As the de facto standard in container orchestration, Kubernetes features a powerful and flexible architecture which supports various cloud-native add-ons. …

A highly available Kubernetes cluster ensures your applications run without outages which is required for production. In this connection, there are plenty of ways for you to choose from to achieve high availability. For example, if your cluster is deployed on cloud (e.g. Google Cloud and AWS), you can create load balancers on these platforms directly. At the same time, Keepalived, HAproxy and NGINX are also possible alternatives for you to achieve load balancing.

In this article, I am going to use Keepalived and HAproxy for load balancing and achieve high availability. The steps are listed as below:

  1. Prepare hosts.

As demonstrated in my last article, you can use KubeKey to easily scale in and out your cluster. As I only had one master node in the example, the cluster did not feature high availability. In this post, I will continue to demonstrate how to scale out your cluster while by adding master nodes this time to achieve high availability.

The steps are listed as follows:

  1. Download KubeKey.
  2. Use KubeKey to retrieve cluster information with a configuration file created automatically.
  3. Add your node and load balancer information in the file and apply the configuration.

Prepare Hosts

Here is my node information of…

In my last post, I demonstrated how to set up a three-node Kubernetes cluster using KubeKey. As I mentioned in the article, KubeKey is a lightweight, powerful installer that is able to install Kubernetes as well as its related add-ons in a quick and convenient way. In fact, KubeKey can do way more than that as it is also an efficient tool to scale your Kubernetes cluster.

On some cloud platforms, you can directly scale your cluster by increasing or decreasing the number of nodes. Usually, this does not entail complex operations as these platforms will do almost everything for…

As Kubernetes is the de-facto standard in container orchestration, the installation of Kubernetes has remained one of the top challenges facing Kubernetes users, especially neophytes. Apart from Kubernetes itself, they also need to figure out how to install different tools required for the installation, such as kubelet, kubeadm and kubectl. They have been wondering if there is a tool that contains all the stacks so that they can just run only few commands for the installation.

In this article, I am going to demonstrate how to set up a three-node Kubernetes cluster using KubeKey.

What is KubeKey

Developed in Go, KubeKey provides an…

TiDB on KubeSphere

In a world where Kubernetes has become the de facto standard to build application services that span multiple containers, running a cloud-native distributed database represents an important part of the experience of using Kubernetes. In this connection, TiDB, a cloud-native, open-source NewSQL database that supports Hybrid Transactional and Analytical Processing (HTAP) workloads, meets those needs admirably. Its architecture is suitable for Kubernetes, and it is MySQL compatible. TiDB also features horizontal scalability, strong consistency, and high availability.

Porter, a load balancer designed for bare metal Kubernetes clusters, was officially included in CNCF Landscape last week. This marks a significant milestone for its parent project KubeSphere, as Porter is now recognized by CNCF as an important member in one of the best cloud native practices.

Porter in CNCF

KubeSphere DevOps Workflow

In this tutorial, we will show you how to create a CI/CD pipeline based on the Jenkinsfile from a GitHub repository. We use KubeSphere Contain Platform to implement this workflow. Using the pipeline, we will deploy a SpringBoot application to a development environment and a production environment respectively.

Meanwhile, we will demo a branch that is used to test dependency caching capability. In this demo, it takes a relatively long time to finish the pipeline for the first time. However, it runs very faster since then. …


KubeSphere ( is an open source distributed operating system providing cloud native stack with Kubernetes as its kernel.

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