The high availability (HA) of clusters in production environments should be taken seriously. Kubernetes and AWS EC2 instances are widely used in various production environments. However, running Kubernetes on AWS while ensuring HA can be complex for many users. In this article, we will demonstrate how KubeKey can help you easily deploy Kubernetes on AWS and ensure HA.

To meet the HA service requirements of Kubernetes in AWS, we need to ensure the HA of kube-apiserver. You can use either of the following methods to meet the target:

What Is Cilium

Cilium is an open-source project focusing on container network. It can be deployed on container platforms to transparently secure the network connection and load balancing between application workloads, such as application containers or processes.

Running on Layer 3 and Layer 4, Cilium provides conventional network and security services. It also runs on Layer 7 to secure the use of modern application protocols, such as HTTP, gRPC, and Kafka. Cilium can be integrated into popular container orchestration frameworks such as Kubernetes and Mesos.

Based on a new Linux kernel technology called eBPF, Cilium enables the dynamic insertion of powerful security visibility…

As you create resources in a Kubernetes cluster, you may have encountered the following scenarios:

In this post, I’ll show you how Argo CD betters the Kubernetes DevOps process. Before we begin, let’s look at some background information.

Argo CD Capability

GitOps: The origin

As you may already know, Weaveworks published a post titled GitOps — Operations by Pull Request in 2017. Alexis, the author, introduced a way of deployment by using Git as a source of truth.

In GitOps practices, we need to define and manage software infrastructures in Git repositories. Software infrastructures involve not only IaaS and Kubernetes but also applications. …

KubeSphere is an open-source distributed operating system for managing cloud-native applications. Using Kubernetes as its kernel, KubeSphere provides a plug-and-play architecture for the seamless integration of third-party applications to boost its ecosystem. KubeSphere can be run anywhere as it is highly pluggable and doesn’t require hacking into Kubernetes.

KubeSphere is developed to address multicluster and multi-cloud management challenges and implement the proceeding user scenarios, providing users with a unified control plane to distribute applications and their replicas to multiple clusters from the public cloud to on-premises environments.

Kubernetes Cluster Federation in KubeSphere

Based on Kubernetes Cluster Federation (Kubefed for short), KubeSphere implements multicluster management which…

Layers of Testing

The purpose of testing is to verify expected functionality and find potential defects. Testing enhances the confidence in delivering qualified products and also brings the possibility of agile iteration. It is safe to say that testing determines the product development progress.

As you may already know, in networking, there are 7 layers of OSI model and 4 layers of TCP model. In development, we also have different patterns such as MTV, MVC, MVP, and MVVM. These technologies have become more mature featuring high cohesion, low coupling, and division of responsibilities, modules, and layers. …

In my last article, I talked about how to use KubeKey to create a Kubernetes and KubeSphere cluster together with NFS storage. In fact, KubeSphere provides you with great flexibility as you can use KubeKey to install NFS storage when you create a cluster while it can also be deployed separately on an existing cluster.

KubeSphere features a highly interactive dashboard where virtually all the operations can be performed on it. In this article, I am going to demonstrate show to configure an NFS storage class on your existing KubeSphere cluster and create a PVC using the storage class.

Before You Begin

KubeEye is an open-source diagnostic tool for identifying various Kubernetes cluster issues automatically, such as misconfigurations, unhealthy components and node failures. It empowers cluster operators to manage and troubleshoot clusters in a timely and graceful manner. Developed in Go on the basis of Polaris and Node Problem Detector, KubeEye is equipped with a series of built-in rules for exception detection. Besides pre-defined rules, KubeEye also supports customized rules.

Why Open Source

As the de facto standard in container orchestration, Kubernetes features a powerful and flexible architecture which supports various cloud-native add-ons. …

A highly available Kubernetes cluster ensures your applications run without outages which is required for production. In this connection, there are plenty of ways for you to choose from to achieve high availability. For example, if your cluster is deployed on cloud (e.g. Google Cloud and AWS), you can create load balancers on these platforms directly. At the same time, Keepalived, HAproxy and NGINX are also possible alternatives for you to achieve load balancing.

In this article, I am going to use Keepalived and HAproxy for load balancing and achieve high availability. The steps are listed as below:

As demonstrated in my last article, you can use KubeKey to easily scale in and out your cluster. As I only had one master node in the example, the cluster did not feature high availability. In this post, I will continue to demonstrate how to scale out your cluster while by adding master nodes this time to achieve high availability.

The steps are listed as follows:

Prepare Hosts

Here is my node information of…


KubeSphere ( is an open source distributed operating system providing cloud native stack with Kubernetes as its kernel.

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